The Dukan Diet review

The Dukan Diet is a protein-based diet designed by French doctor Pierre Dukan. His book The Dukan Diet has sold more than 10 million copies globally.

The diet is based on a list of over 100 allowed foods, as well as four specific ground pillars also known as phases: attack, cruise, consolidation, and stabilization.

Dukan Diet

The first "attack phase" when only protein and oat bran may be eaten. Dieters can choose from 72 lean or low-fat meats (excluding pork and lamb), fish, poultry, eggs, soy, and nonfat dairy.

This is followed by the "Cruise" phase, which allows unlimited amounts of 28 non-starchy vegetables Carrots, peas, corn, and potatoes are not on this list of vegetables but appear in the next phase.

Phase 3, "Consolidation," allows unlimited protein (including pork and lamb) and vegetables every day, along with one piece of low-sugar fruit, 2 slices of whole-grain bread, and 1 portion of hard cheese. Dieters can also have 1-2 servings of starchy foods and 1-2 "celebration" meals per week during this phase.

Dukan Diet

Phase 4, "Stabilization," is the maintenance portion of the plan.

Combine this diet with exercise to multiply the benefit. Whether an hour a day in the weight room or just a 30 minute brisk walk every day, the added benefit of a regular exercise program really do increase and accelerate healthy weight loss.
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Cutis Laxa

Cutis laxa also known as Chalazoderma, Dermatochalasia, Dermatolysis, Dermatomegaly, Generalized elastolysis, Generalized elastorrhexis,or Pachydermatocele is a group of rare connective tissue disorders in which the skin becomes inelastic and hangs loosely in folds.

Cutis laxa is extremely rare; less than a few hundred cases worldwide have been described.

The signs of cutis laxa are very obvious, and it is usually easy to diagnose by examining the skin.

There are four genetic forms of the disease: sexlinked, autosomal dominant, and two types of autosomal recessive inheritance. The recessive forms are the most common and are usually more severe than the other forms.
Cutis Laxa

1. Sex-linked cutis laxa is caused by a defective gene on the X chromosome. In addition to loose skin, its symptoms are mild mental retardation, loose joints, bone abnormalities (like hooked nose, pigeon breast, and funnel breast), frequent loose stools, urinary tract blockages, and deficiencies in lysyl oxidase, an enzyme required for the formation of properly functioning connective tissue. (But the defective gene does not code for lysyl oxidase.)

2. Autosomal dominant cutis laxa is caused by a defective gene carried on an autosomal (not sex-linked) chromosome. Its symptoms are loose, hanging skin, missing elastic fibers, premature aging, and pulmonary emphysema. Only a few families are known with cutis laxa inherited as a dominant trait.

3. Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 1 is caused by a defective gene on chromosome 5. Symptoms include emphysema; diverticula in the esophagus, duodenum, and bladder; lax and dislocated joints; tortuous arteries; hernias; lysyl oxidase deficiencies; and retarded growth.

4. Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2 is also inherited as a recessive trait. In addition to the loose skin, this form of the disease is characterized by bone abnormalities, the delayed joining of the cranial (skull) bones, hip dislocation, curvature of the spine, flat feet, and excessive tooth decay.

There is no effective cure for any of these disorders. Complications are treated by appropriate specialists, for example, cardiologists, gastroenterologists, rheumatologists, and dermatologists. Plastic surgery can be helpful for cosmetic purposes, but the skin may become loose again.

The cause of acquired cutis laxa is not known, so there is no preventive measures can be taken.
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Prosopagnosia - Face Blindness

Prosopagnosia, sometimes called face blindness, may be present from childhood

This is a pretty rare disorder,Individuals with this type often do not realize until they are older that they are unable to recognize faces as well as other people do. A recent study conducted in Germany surveyed the face recognition abilities of a large group of students, and reported a prevalence rate of 2-2.5%. That is, as many as one in 50 people may suffer from developmental prosopagnosia. If this figure is correct, there may be 1.5 million prosopagnosics in the UK alone.


Prosopagnosia is thought to be the result of abnormalities, damage, or impairment in the right fusiform gyrus, a fold in the brain that appears to coordinate the neural systems that control facial perception and memory but It’s not a memory problem. Acquired prosopagnosia may occur after brain damage from head injury, stroke, or neurodegenerative diseases. Individuals with this type had normal face recognition abilities in the past, but this has been impaired or lost due to brain injury.

It would be pretty easy to figure out if you have this problem without taking a test. It causes some pretty bizarre situations where you keep treating people you know like they are strangers because you don't recognize them.Many people occasionally fail to recognise a familiar face, or even mistake an unknown person for someone they know. However, individuals with prosopagnosia have a severe face recognition deficit, affecting even the most familiar faces, such as their spouse or children.


Individuals with prosopagnosia must learn other ways of remembering faces. Clues such as hair, voice, and clothes may help identify people. Some prosopagnosics have reported avoidance of social interactions, problems with interpersonal relationships, damage to career, and even depression. In extreme cases, prosopagnosics may develop social anxiety disorder, characterized by fear and avoidance of social situations that may cause embarrassment. Many individuals with the disorder report difficulty watching movies and television shows since they cannot identify the characters from one scene in the next. Researchers are working on ways to help individuals with prosopagnosia improve their face recognition.

There is no formal treatment for prosopagnosia. However, many researchers are now working in this area, and you may be able to take part in a study investigating prosopagnosia. Some research focuses on advancing our understanding of the causes and basis of prosopagnosia, whereas other investigators are examining the effectiveness of training programmes designed to improve face recognition.

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Spina Bifida on Pregnant Woman

What is spina bifida?

Spina bifida is a birth defect. Most children who have spina bifida do not have problems from it. It occurs when the bones of the spine (vertebrae) do not form properly around part of the baby’s spinal cord. It can affect how the skin on the back looks. And in severe cases, it can make walking or daily activities hard to do without help.

Spina Bifida

Mother-to-be with Spina Bifida what type of delivery should I expect?

The current recommendation is that pregnant women with spina bifida be encouraged to deliver vaginally as women who have vaginal deliveries have fewer complications, faster recovery times and shorter hospital stays.

The type of delivery depends on multiple physical factors, including:sensation level, ability to push with pelvic muscles, size of the pelvis, and flexibility around the hips and knees. The more conducive these factors are to the birthing process, the more likely a vaginal delivery can be performed.

If it appears the baby will not be able to be pushed safely through the pelvic area and down the birth canal, a Cesarean section will be recommended. If a C-section is chosen, the urinary tract should be evaluated for re-implantations, diversions, or conduits to make sure they are avoided during the delivery incision. Women with SB have successfully and safely received epidural anesthesia for their delivery.

Spina Bifida

Because the anatomy of the spine is different, the epidural may need to be placed using ultrasound guidance. There are reports of successful epidurals for most myelomeningocele lesion levels, with or without scoliosis. As with all pregnancy issues in Spina Bifida, monitoring the effects of the epidural is trickier than in usual pregnancies. Therefore, it is best to deliver with an obstetrician and hospital experienced in high-risk pregnancies.

Women delivered by caesarean section have a higher rate of complications, and surgery is often complicated if there has been past urological surgery for spina bifida. The presence of pelvic scarring often makes identification of ureters and other structures difficult

Whether there is an increased risk of birth defects is unknown. another words from what i understand of that comment, it has not be proven in any birth defects of babies with mothers of spina bifida.

For women with Spina Bifida who are not yet pregnant, discussing your medical and surgical history with your SB team and high-risk obstetrician before conceiving can maximize the preparation for a healthy delivery.

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What Foods are Allowed in Paleo Diet ?

The paleo diet, also popularly referred to as paleolithic diet, the caveman diet, Stone Age diet and hunter-gatherer diet, is a modern nutritional plan based on the presumed ancient diet of wild plants and animals that various hominid species habitually consumed during the Paleolithic era, a period of about 2.5 million years which ended around 10,000 years ago with the development of agriculture and grain-based diets.

Paleo Diet

The Paleo Diet is based upon everyday, modern foods that mimic the food groups of our pre-agricultural, hunter-gatherer ancestors. The following seven fundamental characteristics of hunter-gatherer diets will help to optimize your health, minimize your risk of chronic disease, and lose weight.

  • Higher protein intake  
  • Lower carbohydrate intake and lower glycemic index  
  • Higher fiber intake 
  • Moderate to higher fat intake dominated by monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats with balanced Omega-3 and Omega-6 fats 
  • Higher potassium and lower sodium intake 
  • Net dietary alkaline load that balances dietary acid  
  • Higher intake of, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and plant phytochemical

Here is a basic scheme of the foods you should and shouldn’t eat:

  • Grass-produced meats
  • Fish/seafood
  • Fresh fruits and veggies
  • Eggs
  • Nuts and seeds
  • Healthful oils (Olive, walnut, flaxseed, macadamia, avocado, coconut)

  • Cereal grains
  • Legumes (including peanuts)
  • Dairy
  • Refined sugar
  • Potatoes
  • Processed foods
  • Salt
  • Refined vegetable oils
Paleo Diet

Here are few tips to make the Paleo Diet as your lifestyle:
  • For breakfast, make an easy omelet. Sauté onion, peppers, mushrooms, and broccoli in olive oil; add omega-3-enriched or free-range eggs and diced turkey or chicken breast.
  • Paleo lunches, At the beginning of the week, make a huge salad with anything you like. A good starting point can be mixed greens, spinach, radishes, bell peppers, cucumbers, carrots, avocadoes, walnuts, almonds and sliced apples or pears. Store the salad in a large sealable container. Each morning prepare a single serving from the large batch and then mix in meat (ground beef, beef slices, chicken, turkey, ground bison, pork chunks, etc.) or seafood of choice (salmon, shrimp, tuna, or any fresh fish or seafood). Toss with olive oil and lemon juice and you are set.
  • For dinner, try spaghetti squash as a substitute for any pasta recipe. Top with pesto, marinara and meatballs.
  • Roasted beets and their greens make a great side dish for pork. Asparagus, broccoli, and spinach can be steamed quickly. Salmon, halibut, or other fresh fish filets grill well with accompanying foil packs full of cut veggies with olive oil and garlic.
  • Berries and other succulent fruits make a great dessert. Pre-cut carrot and celery sticks, sliced fruit, and pre-portioned raw nut/dried fruit mixes are easy snacks.

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Bird Flu Symptoms in Humans

Bird flu (avian influenza) is a disease caused by an influenza virus that primarily affects birds. In the late 1990s, a new strain of bird flu arose that was remarkable for its ability to cause severe disease and death, especially in domesticated birds such as ducks, chickens, or turkeys. As a result, this strain was called highly pathogenic (meaning very severe and contagious) avian influenza and termed H5N1. A new strain of bird flu has been identified in China. The influenza A virus is termed H7N9 (H7N9 Chinese bird flu). The identification of the virus was reported Mar. 31, 2013; the new strain is different from the H5N1 bird flu virus.
Bird Flu Symptoms in Humans

What are the symptoms of bird flu in humans? Sometimes it starts like ordinary flu, with a bit of a cold, but that isn't absolutely invariable, some people start off with a cough, coughing from bird flu symptoms can be dry (wheezing cough that brings up no mucus) or productive (coughing that brings up and expels infected mucus) and can last for weeks after exposure. This is typical of most influenza infections but should be examined nonetheless and then become short of breath and develop muscle aches, unexplained muscle aches over the body are a serious symptom and should prompt an examination if experienced in conjunction with fever, nausea, diarrhea and headache. So getting a fever is a very important feature, if you haven't got a thermometer, you should get one and be able to measure your temperature and be able to note if it goes up to 38 degrees. If it's not you don't need to worry about it, it's probably a flu-like illness which is very common and which isn't necessarily due to bird flu.

Less severe symptoms can also include eye infections (conjunctivitis).
More serious symptoms of bird flu include Pneumonia, Acute respiratory distress, Viral pneumonia and other severe and life-threatening complications.

So, What should you do if you have reason to suspect you're infected? You need to get to a medical facility that can look after you in terms of providing artificial ventilation if that's necessary, and one that can administer antiviral drugs, particularly in the early stages of the disease before the body goes into this cytokine storm phase; because it's only in that early phase that the antivirals are going to do anything. The treatment otherwise is supportive and to overcome any organ problems like lung failure and kidney failure from the virus spreading into those different parts of the system.
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Achilles Tendon Injuries - Causes and Treatment

Causes of Achilles Tendon Injury

  • The biggest contributing factor is ignoring the pain in the tendon.
  • Achilles pain commonly occurs from shearing and stretching forces placed on the Achilles tendon.
  • Excess pronation (rolling over of the foot) causes extra strain on the tendon. Inflammation of the tendon is a common result along with tightening of the calf muscles. Since the calf muscles are connected to the Achilles tendon, the Achilles turns out to be the 'weakest link' in the chain. The Achilles tendon ends up being overstretched, resulting in irritation and inflammation. 
  • Sudden increases in training can lead to Achilles tendonitis.
Achilles Tendon Injuries

  • Excessive hill running or speed work.
  • Inappropriate shoes. If the soles of the shoes are too stiff, this causes the forefoot to have limited movement. This can lead to increased tension to the Achilles tendon.
  • Studies have shown that excessive heel cushioning can be a contributing factor. Air filled heels are not very good for Achilles tendonitis.
  • Tight calf muscles.
  • Women who take up running are at a greater risk. This mainly affects women who wear high-heeled shoes, which effectively shortens the Achilles tendon. When the individual then takes up running in "flat shoes", the Achilles tendon is put under increased tension.

Preventing Achilles Tendon Injury
The best way to prevent an Achilles tendon injury is to a) stay in overall good shape, and b) warm-up, stretch, and strengthen the Achilles tendons. The best way to prevent an Achilles tendon injury from getting worse is to address the injury immediately: it will get worse if not addressed. For more information on preventing Achilles tendon injuries see: Preventing Achilles Tendon Injury.

Treatment of Achilles Tendonitis
Treatment of Achilles tendonitis begins with resting the tendon to allow the inflammation to settle down. In more serious situations, adequate rest may require crutches or immobilization of the ankle. Learn more about different treatments for Achilles tendonitis, including ice, medications, injections, and surgery.

Achilles Tendon Injuries

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What is Herpes Simplex?

Herpes simplex is an infectious viral inflammatory type, which is characterized by the appearance of skin lesions consist of small vesicles grouped in clusters and surrounded by a red halo. It is caused by the herpes simplex virus, or herpes virus hominis, type I (HSV-1) affecting face, lips, mouth and upper body, and type II (HSV-2) that occurs most frequently in genital and bottom of body.2 currently no cure for the herpes.3

However there are several forms of treatment available to reduce symptoms and speed the healing process of injuries, after which the virus persists in a latent form body until the next episode activo.4 recurrence of herpes simplex types to be distinguished from herpes zoster is an entirely different disease entity.

Herpes symptoms can vary. Many infected individuals have few, if any, noticeable symptoms. In people who do have symptoms, the symptoms start 2 to 20 days after the person was exposed to someone with HSV infection. Symptoms may last for several weeks.
Herpes Simplex

The first episode of herpes is usually worse than outbreaks that come later. The predominant symptom of herpes is the outbreak of painful, itching blisters filled with fluid on and around the external sexual organs or, for oral herpes, on or very near the lip. Females may have a vaginal discharge. Symptoms vaguely similar to those of flu may accompany these outbreaks, including fever, headache, muscle aches and fatigue. There may be painful urination, and swollen and tender lymph glands in the groin.

Usually the blisters will disappear without treatment in two to 10 days, but the virus will remain in the body, lying dormant among clusters of nerve cells until another outbreak is triggered. Factors that can trigger an outbreak include stress, illness such as a cold, fever, fatigue, sunburn, menstruation or sexual intercourse.

Many patients are able to anticipate an outbreak when they notice a warning sign (a tingling sensation, called a prodrome) of the approaching illness. It is when they feel signs that an outbreak is about to start that they are particularly contagious, even though the skin still appears normal

Most people with genital herpes have five to eight outbreaks per year, but not everyone has recurrent symptoms. As time goes on, the number of outbreaks usually decreases. Oral herpes can recur as often as monthly or only one or two times each year.

Sores typically come back near the site of the first infection. Usually, as the outbreaks recur, there are fewer sores and they heal faster and are less painful.

Herpes Simplex

Really there is no treatment that completely eliminates body HSV infection, since once the virus enters a body, it will always remain in an inactive form with occasional relapses-recurrences-. There are medications that can reduce the frequency of herpes episodes occur, the duration of these and the damage they cause.

Prophylactic treatment is important to the appearance of outbreaks, contribute to the quick recovery and not infect others:

  • Keep the infected area clean.
  • Do not touch, or touch the sores as little as possible.
  • Wash hands thoroughly before and after contact with the sores.
  • In case of genital herpes, avoid sexual contact since the first symptoms appear until the eruptions have been cured.
  • In case of cold sores, avoid direct contact to other people with the infected area since the first symptoms appear until the eruptions have been cured.
  • Herpes simplex usually responds to topical acyclovir. It is even more effective derivatives acyclovir tablets or orally. If herpes simplex recurrences are common and affect quality of life, then you can give acyclovir or valacyclovir orally every day, what is known as suppressive therapy.

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