Popcorn Lung

Popcorn lung disease is a rare and irreversible illness that affects workers who breathe the vapor of butter flavoring, or Diacetyl. Although the formal name of the condition is bronchiolitis obliterans, the condition was named popcorn lung disease or popcorn workers lung because it is most commonly found in employees of microwave popcorn plants.

Popcorn lung disease symptoms include:

  • Scarring and hardening of lung tissue
  • Dry cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Weight loss
  • Night sweats
  • Fever
  • Skin peeling

Popcorn Lung

When breathing tests are administered to people with possible popcorn lung disease symptoms, they reveal hyperinflation of the lungs because air becomes trapped beyond the obstruction; thickened airway walls; narrow or blocked small airways; reduced ability to expand the lungs fully; and haziness on x-rays.

Popcorn lung disease symptoms include:

Over the last 15 years, a number of popcorn lung sufferers have needed lung transplants to survive and a small handful of people have died. In 2007, four of America's biggest microwave popcorn manufacturers removed diacetyl from nearly all of their products and several smaller companies followed suit.
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Cellulitis is a skin infection caused by bacteria. Normally, your skin helps protect you from infection. But if you have a cut, sore, or insect bite, bacteria can get into the skin and spread to deeper tissues. If it is not treated with antibiotics, the infection can spread to the blood or lymph nodes. This can be deadly.

Some people can get cellulitis without having a break in the skin. These include older adults and people who have diabetes or a weak immune system.


Symptoms of cellulitis include:

  • Hot, red, swollen and painful area of the skin and deeper tissues
  • Fever
  • Shivers and chills, caused by release of toxins from the bacteria
  • There may be a well-defined line where the cellulitis stops, but this may spread as the infection progresses. Rarely, there's oozing of pus and fluid at the skin puncture site, but usually the infection is more diffuse in the tissues.

Fortunately, cellulitis usually responds well to antibiotics. Ideally, the skin and wound should be swabbed to test the kind of bacteria causing the problem, then a penicillin type of antibiotic is usually needed (or erythromycin for those who are allergic to penicillin).It is very important to get treatment right away for cellulitis. If it is not treated, the bacteria can spread quickly through the body and cause sepsis, an extreme response by the body’s defense system. This can be deadly. Cellulitis on the face can spread to the brain and cause a dangerous infection (meningitis). Cellulitis can also cause other serious problems, such as blood clots in the legs

Cellulitis can be prevented by being careful about hygiene with wounds and breaks in the skin. If you cut or scratch yourself, or break the skin in some way, make sure the wound is cleaned and treated with an antiseptic, then covered with a clean dressing or plaster. If the skin around the wound becomes red and sore, get medical advice as soon as possible.
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Addisons Disease

Addison’s disease (also chronic adrenal insufficiency, hypocortisolism, and hypoadrenalism) is a rare, chronic endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce sufficient steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and often mineralocorticoids). Addison's disease results when your adrenal glands are damaged, producing insufficient amounts of the hormone cortisol and often aldosterone as well. These glands are located just above your kidneys. As part of your endocrine system, they produce hormones that give instructions to virtually every organ and tissue in your body.
Addisons Disease

Sometimes, however, the signs and symptoms of Addison's disease may appear suddenly. In acute adrenal failure (addisonian crisis), the signs and symptoms may also include:
  • Pain in your lower back, abdomen or legs
  • Severe vomiting and diarrhea, leading to dehydration
  • Low blood pressure
  • Loss of consciousness
  • High potassium (hyperkalemia)

Under certain circumstances, these may progress to Addisonian crisis, a severe illness which may include very low blood pressure and coma.Addison's disease occurs in all age groups and affects both sexes.

Treatment for Addison's disease involves taking hormones to replace the insufficient amounts being made by your adrenal glands, in order to mimic the beneficial effects those naturally made hormones would normally produce.With proper treatment, adrenal crisis usually subsides quickly; the patient’s blood pressure stabilizes, and water and sodium levels return to normal. After the crisis, maintenance doses of hydrocortisone preserve physiologic stability.

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Trypophobia is an intense fear of the following things, which results in an all-over itchy feeling and general uneasyness. Lotus seed pods, Crumpets, Pumice, Cavities in teeth, the Ampullae of Lorenzini in Sharks, Holes in concrete, Bug tunnels in wood, Enlarged pores of the skin, Aero Bars, Holes in walls caused by bullets, Bone marrow, Wasps' nest, Honeycomb, Bubbles in Dough, Ant holes, Veins in meat, Clusters of holes.

Usually, Trypophobia is installed since early childhood, being one of those diseases that disappear until the teenager years. A Trypophobe can’t even explain his condition, as it is uncommon and children suffering from it will never tell about it. Although the people that are not suffering from this disease have problems understanding this condition, and even if they have some people suffering from this condition in the family, they will neglect it, saying that this is not such a big deal.

As it is an uncommon condition, people that have it can’t even recognize it. The subject of Trypophobia was barely studied, and the doctors are only prescribing the treatments for other types of phobias for a Trypophobe.


A person with this phobia can develop other fears at some point, including the fear of bubbles and spots. The brain associates those shapes with a hole, and this is why the condition appears.

The Fear of Holes in the Skin is a common disease now, and people are starting to report this problem more and more often. This is why a group of researchers and psychologists started to study this problem, and soon we will have guides and treatments for this problem.

The phobia is also an irritating condition, as it is different from other phobias. The Trypophobe is afraid of the holes, but he or she can’t stop watching them. Moreover, those persons are normal in everyday life. For example, a person suffering from this condition can watch horror movies without any problem.
The causes of this condition are still unknown. However, it is known that a trypophobic has two different reactions at the appearance of holes. The first one would be to watch it for a while, and then the person would think about covering it or destroying it. It is believed that those persons suffer from dizziness at the appearance of those wholes, and another rumor says the condition is connected with the childhood of the person. If you suffer from this condition, think about your childhood. If you had many wounds, bleed a lot from the common childhood accidents or you had a scar for a long time, this might be the cause of your phobia.
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DiGeorge syndrome

DiGeorge syndrome (22q11.2 deletion syndrome), a disorder caused by a defect in chromosome 22, results in the poor development of several body systems.
The syndrome was described in 1968 by the pediatric endocrinologist Angelo DiGeorge
DiGeorge syndrome

Medical problems commonly associated with DiGeorge syndrome include heart defects, poor immune system function, a cleft palate, complications related to low levels of calcium in the blood and behavioral disorders.

The number and severity of problems associated with DiGeorge syndrome vary greatly. Almost everyone with DiGeorge syndrome needs treatment from specialists in a variety of fields.

DiGeorge syndrome

If your child has any of the following signs and symptoms or may include some combination of the following, seek immediate medical care

  • Bluish skin due to poor circulation of oxygen-rich blood (cyanosis)
  • Weakness or tiring easily
  • Failure to thrive
  • Failure to gain weight
  • Poor muscle tone
  • Shortness of breath
  • Twitching or spasms around the mouth, hands, arms or throat (tetany)
  • Frequent infections
  • Difficulty feeding
  • Delayed development, such as delays in rolling over, sitting up or other infant milestones
  • Delayed speech development
  • Learning delays or difficulties
  • A gap in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate) or other problems with the palate
  • Certain facial features, such as low-set ears, wide-set eyes or a narrow groove in the upper lip

There is no cure for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Certain individual features are treatable using standard treatments. The key is to identify each of the associated features and manage each using the best available treatments. For example, in children it is important that the immune problems are identified early as special precautions are required regarding blood transfusion and immunisation with live vaccines. Thymus transplantation can be used to address absence of the thymus in the rare, so-called "complete" DiGeorge syndrome. Bacterial infections are treated with antibiotics. Cardiac surgery is often required for congenital heart abnormalities. Hypoparathyroidism causing hypocalcaemia often requires lifelong vitamin D and calcium supplements.
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Hepatitis C - The Silent Killer

Hepatitis C is an infectious disease affecting primarily the liver, caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The infection is often asymptomatic, but chronic infection can lead to scarring of the liver and ultimately to cirrhosis, which is generally apparent after many years. In some cases, those with cirrhosis will go on to develop liver failure, liver cancer or life-threatening esophageal and gastric varices

TODAY if you have health problems such as flu-like and may include following symptoms, you should immediately consult a doctor.
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Nausea or poor appetite
  • Muscle and joint pains
  • Tenderness in the area of your liver
This is because of the problems you may be infected with an unknown disease is there and there were times when it has reached a chronic stage.

It is difficult to detect infection by the patient's own because it always strikes without bringing specific symptoms or prolonged.
Hepatitis C

The disease is also categorized as a silent killer because many patients do not know they are infected themselves until many years but there is a reach tens of years.

Based on statistics from the World Health Organization (WHO), 60 percent to 70 percent of hepatitis C patients will suffer from chronic liver disease, while five percent to 20 percent will suffer from cirrhosis, while one per cent to five per cent will die from cirrhosis or liver cancer.

Hepatitis C infection is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV is spread when you come in contact with contaminated blood.
  • Blood transfusions and organ transplants before 1992. Improved blood-screening tests became available in 1992. Before that year, it was possible to unknowingly contract hepatitis C through a blood transfusion or organ transplant.
  • Shared needles. HCV can also spread through sharing contaminated needles when injecting drugs.
  • Childbirth. A small number of babies born to mothers with hepatitis C acquire the infection during childbirth.
  • Sexual contact. In rare cases, HCV may be transmitted sexually.
If you receive a diagnosis of hepatitis C, your doctor will likely recommend certain lifestyle changes. These measures will help keep you healthy longer and protect the health of others as well:
  • Stop drinking alcohol. Alcohol speeds the progression of liver disease.
  • Avoid medications that may cause liver damage. Review your medications with your doctor, including the over-the-counter medications you take. Your doctor may recommend avoiding certain medications.
  • Stay healthy. Make healthy lifestyle choices each day. For example, choose a diet full of fruits and vegetables, exercise most days of the week, and get enough sleep so that you wake feeling rested.
  • Help prevent others from coming in contact with your blood. Cover any wounds you have and don't share razors or toothbrushes. Don't donate blood, body organs or semen, and advise health care workers that you have the virus.

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Blood Pressure

Blood pressure (BP), sometimes referred to as arterial blood pressure, is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels, and is one of the principal vital signs. When used without further specification, "blood pressure" usually refers to the arterial pressure of the systemic circulation. During each heartbeat, blood pressure varies between a maximum (systolic) and a minimum (diastolic) pressure.The blood pressure in the circulation is principally due to the pumping action of the heart.

Blood pressure readings fall into four general categories, ranging from normal to stage 2 hypertension (high blood pressure). The level of your blood pressure determines what kind of treatment you may need. To get an accurate blood pressure measurement, your doctor should evaluate your readings based on the average of two or more blood pressure readings on each of two office visits.

Blood Pressure

The top number is your systolic pressure.
It is considered high if it is over 140 most of the time.
It is considered normal if it is below 120 most of the time.

The bottom number is your diastolic pressure.
It is considered high if it is over 90 most of the time.
It is considered normal if it is below 80 most of the time.
Pre-hypertension may be considered when your:

Top number (systolic blood pressure) is between 120 and 139 most of the time, or
Bottom number (diastolic blood pressure) is between 80 and 89 most of the time

If you have pre-hypertension, you are more likely to develop high blood pressure.

If you have heart or kidney problems, or if you had a stroke, your doctor may want your blood pressure to be even lower than that of people who do not have these conditions.

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West Nile Virus

West Nile Virus (WNV) was first identified in the West Nile sub-region in the East African nation of Uganda in 1937

West Nile virus is caused by a bite from an infected mosquito that's already carrying the virus, but it's important to remember that not all mosquitoes are infected,it is a mosquito-borne zoonotic arbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. This flavivirus is found in temperate and tropical regions of the world. In many parts of the United States, the risk of being bitten by an infected mosquito is greatest from July to early September. But in some parts of the country, mosquito bites can be a risk all year long.

Not everyone who gets bitten by an infected mosquito will get the virus, from studies we know that only about one in every five people who get infected with West Nile will actually develop symptoms.

The most common ones are
- Fever
- Headaches
- Body ache
- Joint pain
- Vomiting
- Diarrhea
- Rash
West Nile Virus

A lot of people who develop symptoms usually just wait it out at home. Or they’ll go to a medical doctor and end up recovering from their illness and feeling much better within several weeks. Sometimes, people will complain of fatigue or report feeling not quite themselves for several months.

If they think they have West Nile, they can have their blood tested for the presence of antibodies or, in more severe cases that affect the central nervous system, a doctor can take samples of the cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.Usually people are hospitalized if they have more serious symptoms.West Nile virus is not spread from person to person.
West Nile Virus

So, what's being done to stop the spread of West Nile virus? Health officials in each state do their best to find out where mosquitoes live and kill the eggs of mosquitoes that might carry the virus.Watch out for mosquitoes in the early morning and in the early evening since that's when they're often very active. Mosquitoes also like standing water, like in wading pools and creeks.Use insect repellents when you go outdoors. Wear long sleeves and pants to prevent mosquito bites at dusk and dawn. Install or repair screens or windows to prevent mosquitoes from getting inside your home.
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Bubonic Plague

There are three most common forms of plague are:

  1. Bubonic plague -- an infection of the lymph nodes
  2. Pneumonic plague -- an infection of the lungs
  3. Septicemic plague -- an infection of the blood

Bubonic plague is a zoonotic disease, c is caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis. Rodents, such as rats, carry the disease. It is spread by their fleas.Without treatment, the bubonic plague kills about two thirds of infected humans within 4 days.

Plague causes fever and a painful swelling of the lymph glands called buboes, which is how it gets its name. The disease also causes spots on the skin that are red at first and then turn black.

According to the World Health Organization, there are 1,000 to 3,000 cases of bubonic plague worldwide each year. There are no known cases in Australia or Europe. Plague can still be found in Africa, Asia, and South America.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that there are 10 to 15 cases of bubonic plague in the United States each year. These cases tend to occur in two regions: northern New Mexico, northern Arizona and southern Colorado; California, southern Oregon and far western Nevada.

Bubonic Plague

Bubonic plague symptoms appear suddenly, usually after 2 - 5 days of exposure to the bacteria. Symptoms include:

  • Chills
  • Fever
  • General ill feeling (malaise)
  • Headache
  • Muscle pain
  • Seizures
  • Smooth, painful lymph gland swelling called a bubo

People with the plague need immediate treatment. If treatment is not received within 24 hours of when the first symptoms occur, death may occur.

Antibiotics such as streptomycin, gentamicin, doxycycline, or ciprofloxacin are used to treat plague. Oxygen, intravenous fluids, and respiratory support usually are also needed.

Patients with pneumonic plague should be strictly isolated from caregivers and other patients. People who have had contact with anyone infected by pneumonic plague should be watched carefully and given antibiotics as a preventive measure.

In most developed countries, cities and towns have successfully controlled their rat populations, but rural and urban areas of developing countries often have problems with rat infestation, and thus are at risk of bubonic plague epidemics. Therefore, reducing the risk of plague outbreaks in these areas would require:

  • Controlling the rat population
  • Watching for plague cases in both rats and humans in the area
  • Using insecticide to reduce the number of fleas
  • Treating pets for fleas
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